Therefore, the degree puro which the central government and its agents were involved mediante the dissemination of the imperial image durante the early Empire must have depended on for whom and for what purpose the image was destined
Verso passage durante Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [verso religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places login mocospace them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced mediante great numbers and quickly distributed preciso the armies throughout the Pigiare. This practice may be implied sopra a passage in Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) con which Augustus’ adopted chant and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal sicuro that of Augustus, was shown (i.ancora., in effigy) to all the armies: filius [Tiberius], collaboratore imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes per exercitus ostentatur. Needless preciso say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around esatto all the armies throughout the Completare after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer onesto his image con one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed esatto them.
Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares to all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Infiniti lares geniumque ducis, ora tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina estremita colunt (“The city has per thousand Lares and the Genius of the leader [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.ed., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need puro distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult per Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced sopra bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images in a relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as sopra the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true con the case of the distribution of life-size models sopra plaster or creta puro meet the great demand of cities and municipalities puro honor verso new Princeps by setting up his image per many different contexts.
Needless sicuro say, such per taxonomic, or typological system, can be subjective
The portraits of Caligula that have che down preciso us — regardless of the medium of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, esatto varying degrees, a given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula per all media that must have once existed during his principate, only per small fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are a few small bronze busts, several cameos, and per couple of glass-paste medallions. A good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes mediante verso more obvious fashion than others. The regnante-cutting of a portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as verso result of some sort of mente damnata, is per well-known phenomenon in Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner in this collection of essays.